Loring J. Ingraham

Title — Professor and Program Director; Fellow of the American Psychological Association (Division 12 - Society of Clinical Psychology)

Office — 132 Old Main - Office hours: Thursday 4:00PM-6:00PM

Current Research

Long-term effects of early environment, Schizophrenia, Research methods


B.A.  Yale, 1974

Internship  Harvard Medical School, 1982

Ph.D.  Catholic University, 1985

Past positions:

Live-in Director, Cornerstone High-Expectancy Half-Way House, New Haven CT

Senior Staff Fellow, Laboratory of Psychology and Psychopathology, NIMH


Ingraham, L. Will Gutenberg survive? (1978) Science, 199, 122-123.

Notarius, C. I., Wemple, C., Ingraham. L. J., Burns, T. J., and Kollar, E. (1982)
    Multichannel responses to an interpersonal stressor: The interrelationships between facial
    display, heart rate, self report of emotion and threat appraisal. Journal of Personality and
    Social     Psychology, 43, 400-408.

Wright, T. L., Ingraham, L. J., and Blackmer, D. A. (1984)  The simultaneous study of individual differences and
    relationship effects in attraction. Journal of Personality and
    Social Psychology, 47, 1059-1062.
Wright, T. L., and Ingraham, L. J. (1985)  The simultaneous study of individual differences
    And relationship effects in social behavior in groups.  Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 48, 1041-1047.

Wright, T. L., and Ingraham, L. J. (1985)  Satisfaction  and things not said:  Clinical tools for
    group psychotherapists. Journal of Small Group Behavior, 16, 565-572.

Bridge, T. P., Parker, E. P., Ingraham, L., and Bickham, C.E. (1985) Gender effects seen in
    the cerebral ventricular/brain ratio(VBR). Biological Psychiatry, 20, 1136-1138.

Wright, T. L. and Ingraham, L. J. (1986)  Partners and relationships influence self-perceptions
    of self-disclosures in naturalistic interactions. Journal of Personality and Social
    Psychology, 50, 631-635.

Wright, T. L. and Ingraham, L. J. (1986)  A social relations model test of the interpersonal    
    circle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1285-1290.

Ingraham, L.J. and Wright, T.L. (1986)  A cautionary note on the interpretation of relationship
    effects in the Social Relations Model. Social Psychology Quarterly, 49, 93-97.

Ingraham, L. J. and Wright, T. L. (1987)  A social relations model test of Sullivan's anxiety
    hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1212-1218.

Myslobodsky, M. S., Ingraham, L. J., and Weinberger, D. R. (1987) Skull asymmetry and
    handedness in adults: a possibility of their association with lateral head turning in
    infancy. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 65, 415-421.

Ingraham. L. J. (1987) A medical approach to psychodiagnosis. (review) Contemporary Psychology, 32, 659-660.

Ingraham, L. J. and Kety, S. S. (1988) Schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  In: M. T. Tsuang & J.
     C. Simpson (Eds.), Handbook  of Schizophrenia Vol. 3. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ingraham, L. J., Chard, F.,  Wood, M. & Mirsky, A. F. (1988) An Hebrew language version of
    the Stroop test. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67, 187-192.

Goodwin, F. K., Bridge, P. B., and Ingraham, L. J. (1988) Perspectives on the evolution of
    Federal AIDS research Policy. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 24, 330-333.    

Subgroup on Neuroscience and Behavior. (1988) Neuroscience and Behavior.  In: United States
    Public Health Service, Report of the Second Public Health Service AIDS Prevention and
    Control Conference.  Public Health Reports, 103, Suppl. 1, 72-79.

Bridge, T. P, Heseltine, P. N. R., Parker, E. S., Eaton, E., Ingraham. L. J., Gill, M., Ruff, M.,
     Pert, C. B., Goodwin, F. K. (1989) Improvement in AIDS patients on peptide T. Lancet,
    II, 226-27.

Daniel, D.G., Myslobodsky, M.S., Ingraham, L.J., Suddath, R., Coppola, R., Weinberger,
    D.R. (1989) The relationship of occipital skull asymmetry to brain parenchymal measures
    in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research, 2, 465-72.

Bridge, T. P., Ingraham, L. J. (1990) Central nervous system effects of human immunodeficiency
    virus-1. Annual Review of  Medicine, 41, 159-68.

Ingraham, L. J., Bridge, T. P, Janssen, R., Stover, E., Mirsky,  A. F. (1990)     Neuropsychological effects
    of early HIV-1 infection: assessment and methodology.    
    Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 2, 174-82.

Bridge, T. P., Ingraham, L. J., and Goodwin, F. K. (1990) Neuropsychiatry of AIDS: Clinical
    presentation and treatment  research.  In W. E. Bunney, H. Hippius, G. Laakman, M.
    Schmauss (Eds.), Neuropsychopharmacology: Proceedings of the XVIth C.I.N.P.
    Congress, Munich, 1988 (pp 737-744). Berlin: Springer.

Ingraham, L. J. (1990) (letter) Confounds in CT studies of schizophrenia. British Journal of
    Psychiatry, 156, 444-45.

Bridge, T. P. and Ingraham, L. J. (1990) Future studies in psychoneuroimmunology. In D. G.
    Ostrow (Ed.), Behavioral Aspects of AIDS, pp. 395-403.  New York: Plenum.

Ingraham, L. J., Bridge, T. P., Parker, E. S., Bickham, C. E., and Myslobodsky, M. (1991)
    (letter) Cerebral size affects localized density measured by CT.  Archives of General
    Psychiatry, 48, 178-79.

Ingraham, L. J. (1991) A neuropsychology of psychosis. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 34.

Kugelmass, S., Sohlberg, S., Frankel, E., Nathan, M., Schmueli,  J., Marcus, J., Mirsky, A.F.
    and Ingraham, L. (1991) (abstract) A reanalysis of the GSR and anxiety measures of the
    Israeli     High-Risk study. International Journal of  Psychophysiology,  11, 49.

 Bridge, T. P., Heseltine, P. M. R., Parker, E. S., Eaton, E. M., Ingraham, L. J., McGrail, M. L.
    and Goodwin, F. K. (1991)  Results of extended peptide T administration in AIDS and
    ARC patients. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 27, 237-245.

Mirsky, A. F., Ingraham, L. J., Lowing, P. L. (1992) Childhood stressors, parental expectation,
    and the development of schizophrenia. Progress in Experimental Personality and    
    Psychopathology Research, 15, 110-130.

Ingraham, L. J., Wender, P. H. (1992) Risk for affective disorder and alcohol and other drug
    abuse in the relatives of affectively ill adoptees. Journal of Affective Disorders,
    26, 45-52.

Kety, S. S. and Ingraham, L. J. (1992) Genetic transmission and improved diagnosis of    
     schizophrenia from pedigrees of adoptees. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 26, 247-255. 

Kety, S. S., Wender, P. H., Jacobsen, B., Ingraham, L. J., Jansson, L., Faber, B., Kinney, D.
    (1994) Mental illness in the biological and adoptive relatives of schizophrenic adoptees: 
    Replication of the Copenhagen study in the rest of Denmark. Archives of General
    Psychiatry, 51, 442-455.

Ingraham, L. J., Kugelmass, S., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M., Mirsky, A. F. (1995) Twenty-five-
    year followup of the Israeli High-Risk Study: current and lifetime psychopathology.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 183-192.

Mirsky, A. F., Ingraham, L. J., Kugelmass, S. (1995) Neuropsychological assessment of
    attention and its pathology in the Israeli cohort. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 193-204.

Kugelmass, S., Faber, N.,  Ingraham, L. J., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M., Mirsky, A.F., Shakhar,
    G. B. (1995) A Reanalysis of the SCOR and Anxiety Measures in the Israeli High-Risk
    Study. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 205-217.

Frenkel, E., Kugelmass, S., Nathan, M., Ingraham, L. J. (1995) Locus of Control and Mental
    Health in Adolescence and Adulthood. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21, 219-226.

Mirsky, A. F., Kugelmass, S., Ingraham, L. J., Frenkel, E., Nathan, M. (1995) Overview and
    summary: Twenty-five-year followup of high-risk children. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 21,
Ingraham, L.J. (1995) Family-genetic research and schizotypal  personality. In A. Raine, T.
    Lencz and S. Mednick (Eds.), Schizotypal Personality, pp. 19-42. Cambridge: Cambridge
     U. Press.

Ingraham, L. J., Aiken, C. B. (1996) An empirical approach to determining criteria for    
     abnormality in test batteries with multiple measures. Neuropsychology, 10, 120-124.

Ingraham, L. J., Chan, T. F. (1996) Is there psychopathology in the co-parents of
    schizophrenic adoptees’ half-siblings? Psychological Reports, 79, 1296-1298.

Philibert, R.A., St Jean, P.L., Schork, N.J., Anderson, M.C., Dalwadi, H., Damschroder
    -Williams, P.J., Doherty, A.E., Dymarskaia, I., Ehlert, M., Murray, M., Galdzicka, M.,
    Ingraham, L. J., Lau, E., Long, R.T., Patel, A., Paul, S.P., Remortel, B.G., Stubblefield,
    B.K., Martin, B.M., Allen, C.R., Pauls, D.L., Elston, R.C., Egeland, J.A., Paul, S.M.,
    Ginns, E.I. (1997) Update on candidate susceptibility loci identified from a genome-wide
    search for chromosome regions linked to bipolar affective disorder in the old order Amish.
    American Journal Of Human Genetics 61, 1612 Suppl.

Ginns, E.I., St. Jean, P., Philibert, R., Galdzicka, M., Damschroder-Williams, P., Thiel, B.,    
    Long, R.T., Ingraham, L.J., Dalwadi, H., Murray, M., Ehlert, M., Paul, S., Remortel,
    B.G., Patel, A., Anderson, M.C., Shaio, C., Lau, E., Dysmarskaia, I, Martin, B.M.,
    Stubblefield, B.,Falls, K.M., Carulli, J.P., Keith, T.P., Fann, C.S.J., Lacy, L.G., Allen,
    C.R., Hostetter, A.M., Elston, R.C., Schork, N.J., Egeland, J.A., & Paul, S.M. (1998).
    A genome-wide search for chromosomal loci linked to mental health wellness in relatives
    at high risk for bipolar affective disorder among the old order Amish. Proceedings of the
    National Academy of Sciences, 95, 15531- 15536.

Ingraham. L. J. (1999) Theory and research on small groups. (review) Readings: A Journal of
    Review and Commentary in Mental Health, 14:1, 30-31.

Lau, E, Tayebi, N., Ingraham, L.J., Winfield, S., Koprivica1, V., Stone, D., Zimran, A.,
    Ginns, E. I., & Sidransky, E. (1999) Two novel polymorphic sequences in the
    glucocerebrosidase gene region enhance mutation screening and founder effect studies
    of patients with Gaucher disease. Human Genetics, 104: 293-300.

Torrey, F., Jablensky, A., Pearlson, G., Knable, M., Adityanjee, Ingraham, L., Africa, B.,
    De Lisi, L., Wildenauer, D., Copolov, D., Buka, S., Murray, R., Stevens, J., Jones, P.,
    Rund, B., Goldberg, T., Gallhofer, B., Falkai, P., Tsuang, M., Schroder, J., Bogerts, B.,
    Friedman, L., Bogerts, B., Lawson, B., Bachus, S., Post, R., Haas, G. (1999)
    Stanley Foundation Satellite Symposium, Santa Fe, New Mexico, Saturday, April 17, 1999.
    Schizophrenia Research, 39: 159-163.

Ingraham, L.J. (1999) Empirical characterization of the schizophrenia spectrum. In M. Maj and
    N. Sartorius (Eds.) Schizophrenia. World Psychiatric Association Series on Evidence and
    Experience in Psychiatry, pp 377-379. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ingraham, L.J. & Kety, S.S. (2000) Adoption studies of schizophrenia. American Journal of
    Medical Genetics (Seminars in medical Genetics), 97:18-22.

Ingraham L. J. & Myslobodsky, M. (2000) Coping with uncertainty: what would an animal
    model of schizophrenia look like? In M. Myslobodsky & I. Winer (Eds.) Contemporary
    Issues in Modeling Psychopathology, pp 275-291.  Boston: Kluwer.

Marsh, P.T., Theobald, A., Polson, T., Ingraham, L.J. (2002) Characteristics of Children
     Referred to a Therapeutic Nursery Program. Proceedings of Head Start's Sixth Annual
     Research Conference, pp 787-788. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Ingraham, L. J. (2003) Schizophrenia: Background, Types and Symptoms. In N. Piotroski (Ed.)
     Magill’s Encyclopedia of Social Science: Psychology, pp. 1360-1365.  Pasadena: 
     Salem Press.

Ingraham, L. J. (2003) Schizophrenia: Theoretical Explanations. In N. Piotrowski (Ed.)
     Magill’s Encyclopedia of Social Science: Psychology, pp. 1369-1374.  Pasadena:
     Salem Press.

Nicolson, R.,  Brookner, F. B., Lenane, M., Gochman, P., Ingraham, L. J., Egan, M. F.,
    Kendler, K. S., Pickar, D., Weinberger, D. R.,  Rapoport, J. L. (2003) Parental
    schizophrenia spectrum disorders in childhood-onset and adult-onset schizophrenia.
    American Journal of Psychiatry, 163:490-495.

Fritsch, R. C. and Ingraham, L. J. (2003) Remission of personality or remission of symptoms.
    Psychiatry, 66:124-128.

Ingraham, L.J. (2005) Parsing the schizophrenia spectrum. In M. Maj and N. Sartorius (Eds.)
     Personality Disorders. World Psychiatric Association Series on Evidence and
     Experience in Psychiatry, pp. 92-94. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Ingraham, L.J., Auerbach, J., Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Fish, B., Hans, S., Marcus, J., McNeil, T.,
     Mirsky, A., Schubert, E. (2005). Longitudinal studies of individuals at high-risk
     for schizophrenia: Why they were necessary, what they discovered and what remains to
     be done. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31:183.

Erlenmeyer-Kimling, l., Hans, S., Ingraham, L.J., Marcus, J., Wynne, L., Rehman, A., 
     Roberts, A., Auerbach, J.  (2005) Handedness in children of schizophrenic parents: data
     from three high-risk studies. Behavior Genetics, 35: 351-358.

Ingraham, L.J. (2007) Fostering undergraduate engagement in schizophrenia services and
     research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 33, 484.

Ingraham, L.J. (2009) The Enduring Influence of D. Shakow's Neuropsychological
    Investigations on Schizophrenia Research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35, 285.
Auerbach, J. G., Erlenmeyer-Kimling, L., Fish, B., Hans, S.L., Ingraham, L.J., Marcus, J.,
    McNeil, T.F., Schubert, E. (2009) Genetic risks in schizophrenia: Cross-national
    Prospective longitudinal high-risk studies. In: Kim, Y-K. Handbook of Behavioral
    Genetics, pp. 487- 500. NewYork: Springer.

Myslobodsky, M., Ingraham, L.J. (2009) Managing the pandemic of obesity: Siding with the
    fox or the hedgehog?  Obesity Facts, 2, 384-392.

Ingraham, L.J. (2011) Likelihood of significant differences between groups when simultaneously
    assessing several components of multiple neuropsychological domains. Schizophrenia
    Bulletin, 37, 245.

Ingraham, L.J. (2013) Interpretation of observed non-familiality in studies of schizophrenia.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin, 39, S.

Classes Taught

Severe Pathology

Biological Bases of Behavior

Research Methods

Dean's Seminar: Schizophrenia